Archive for April, 2012

Web 2.0 – Week 4 Reflection

Posted: April 23, 2012 in web 101, web 2.0

Wikipedia is a Web 2.0 tool a concept originally coined by Tim O’Reilly (2005) which has proven not just a buzzword, “based on a simple idea, and that idea grew into a movement” and “its way to becoming a robust platform for a culture-changing generation of computer applications and services”. (O’Reilly & Battelle, 2009, p. 1).

The key features are a rich user experience, user participation, metadata and dynamic content, standards and scalability of websites, and applications that contribute toward effective communication and collaboration to meet users and participators needs online.

It was interesting to compare how the web has involved from web 1.0 to web 2.0.  People are able to communicate and collaborate much more effectively online, so its not just cyberspace its blurred the boundaries into real life. To see the differences between web 1.0 and web 2.0 see my previous blog ‘Web 2.0’ https://web101cheriesaunders.wordpress.com/2012/03/26/web-2-0-6-2/

Web 1.0 was about hypertextual interactivity but slow to manage.  It was quite difficult to create web pages, and mostly were static pages and read only.  There wasn’t a lot of media such as videos, and audio due to slow internet speeds.

With the growth in technology, people were enabled with the tools they needed to participate online.  No longer were users just IT people and designers but they were everyday people engaging in community and identity on social networking sites, blogs, and wikis in global conversation.

Tools were enabling people to access online resources without having to know how to code.  Web 2.0 tools enable a centralised conversation, better interaction, share, communicate, exchange ideas, discuss, comment and create.  No doing required!!

This week discussed Really Simple Syndication (RSS) a web fed format used to frequently update web content such as text, images, and video, and mostly provides feeds for users to subscribe for a new blogging post, and other kinds of pages for business and leisure, and newsfeeds “including stock quotes, weather data, and photo availability” (O’Reilly, 1999).  As O’Reilly (1999) stated “RSS is the most significant advance in the fundamental architecture of the web” and creates an “ease-of-publishing phenomenon”,  therefore supplying an effective method of sharing, tracking and publishing information.

People can update their blog posts, upload videos and images, and other users can “become members and subscriptions or RSS feeds of updates” (Cormode & Krishnamurth pg 6:2008) on sites such as Blogs, Flickr, and Youtube and be notified in real-time at any time or space. RSS can be viewed in the web browser on personal computers but also mobile devices such as Iphones, so RSS allows for multiple methods of accessibility at any time or space.

Pinterest RSS feeds can be embedded into a User’s Facebook timeline, so that Facebook friends can be provided with any update entries a key word, heading, and image to show updates between the different nodes.

Technically the RSS language is based upon XML in a file that outlines tags or metadata such as dates, author, title, URL, and can be displayed by a website using a general-purpose server-side scripting language (PHP). RSS can be displayed on the same site, or from other sites. RSS must conform to specification XML 1.0 as published by the World Wide Consortium Website at http://feed2.w3.org/docs/rss2.html (W3C).

I use RSS on my blog sites as a predesigned widget that displays and connect my other nodes, tag clouds, archives, and latest entries.  It enables content to be displayed in mutliple locations through publishing the content in one location and then updates the other nodes, and feeds automatically without duplicating entries.

References

Cormode G and Krishnamurthy B, (2008). Key Differences between Web1.0 and Web2.0 [Online]. Available at: http://www2.research.att.com/~bala/papers/web1v2.pdf [Accessed 23 March 2012].

O’Reilly, T. 2005. What is Web 2.0? Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software. http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html  [ONLINE] O’Reilly Media Inc [Accessed on 9 February 2012)

The  word blog is irrelevant, what’s important is that it is now common, and will soon be expected, that every intelligent person (and quite a few unintelligent ones) will have a media platform where they share what they care about with the world.” Seth Godin cited in (2008)

Web 2.0 has enabled people to easy access blogging platform in sharing, collaboration and communicating their blogs.  It has had a profound effect upon the way people tell their stories such as citizen journalism,and gatewatching and its impact upon the media with much debate about credibility of sources.

What does blog mean:

blog (blog)

Pronunciation: /blɒɡ/

noun a personal website or web page on which an individual records opinions, links to other sites, etc. on a regular basis.

verb(blogs, blogging, blogged)

[no  object] add new material to or regularly update a blog: it’s about a week since I last blogged

[with  object] write about (an event, situation, topic, etc.) in a blog: he blogged the Democratic and Republican national conventions as an independent http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/blog

This weeks lecturer about Blogging, and the history of blogs.

As discussed by Rebecca Blood’s Weblogs: a history and perspective discussing blog history in the late 1990s and early 2000 and predictions for the future. She was the first evangelist for web blogging.

The emergence of blogs has led to a new wave of citizen journalism, with anyone who authors a blog able to   contribute information that can be used by users seeking news and actual newspapers.   It has been a current trend for blogs to be used alternatively to the media, and journalist having been working with blogging to circulate their stories. There has been much debate about whether these accounts are credible, that the information is reliable, but journalist now use blogs and the people’s personal accounts, to get better new worthy stories for publishing online.  There has been a shift away from newspapers to online journalism and blogging, such as gatewatching that suggests citizen journalism doesn’t replace main stream media but retunes and filters it through ‘gatewatching’ (Axel Brunz).

During the London bombings in 2005, people were using their phones to take photos which the media published, so these turned into hypertext version of key witnessed accounts.

Interestingly the story about Pax, an Iraqi blogger started detailing his life during the Baghdad under Sadam Hussein’gs government, started in 2002 that highlight the important of Web 2.0 and many-to-many collaboration globally.  Pax didn’t meet the generalised identity of people in Iraq, and his accounts significant to what was realy happening in Iraq during that time when the 2003 invasion by the US of Iraq with US army being deployed in the city.  He became an accidental journalist, published his accounts, and now works as a journalist.  You can read the archives of Pax’s blog http://dear_raed.blogspot.com.au/

As cited in Pax’s blog relevant to this episode in his life,

“the West won the world not by the  superiority of its ideas or values or religion but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact, non-Westerners  never do.” Samuel P. Huntington

As a blogger, I use it as an online diary (blogger) where I can talk about my life, usually my children, and interests.  A few relatives follow the blog but it is mainly used as the medium to organise my writing and eventually I will print copies for my sons.  I also have a family history website www.penhall.id.au used for collaborating and communicating with relatives about family history.  WordPress is relatively easy to use, with a variety of themes to display my look and feel which can be customised.  The types of posts are stories about old times, old photos and general family history information.

People can participate in communities of bloggers, following blogs of interest and shared identity.  There are various platforms that host blogging such as blogger, wordpress and tumblr.  The soft is usually open source, and technologies include RSS (XML), DHMTL, XHTML,  javascript, ajaz, and php.  People can publish a blog post, comments, display link rolls, track back posts to previous version, use themes for a particular look and feel, and podcasts for video sharing.

References

Rettberg, J. 2008, Blogging Chapter 3: Bloggers, Communities and Networks, pgs 57-83

Rebecca Blood’s Weblogs: a history and perspective.

(2008). State of the Blogosphere 2008. Retrieved May 14th, 2009, from http://technorati.com/blogging/state-of-the-blogosphere//.

http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/blog

http://dear_raed.blogspot.com.au/

Social Networking is a world-wide phenomina where people use social networking sites to collaborate and communication with other social network sites online.

Paricularly interesting are the issues surrounding privacy levels can be set on Facebook and most social networking sites.  Privacy is about protecting the idenity of users, and usually embedded in the features of social networking platform to enable the users to decide how much content others can view and who can view it.

There is a website that shows the terms of conditions of various social newtorking and other online networking sites http://www.tosback.org/timeline.php which provides links to Terms of use. It shows Terms of use for 56 websites and everytime there is a change it is highlighted on this site.

Discussion about use of data, in particular Facebook has raised concerns about how they use our information.  Whether they need to get permission before using that information.

Boyd (2009) mentioned privacy concerns as a major theme in cultural and critical discourse on social networking, and outliend SNS’ as challenging legal perspectives of privacy.  Also, asks “do police officers have the right to access content posted to Facebook without a warrant?” When do you think a social network is private and when is it public?

My personal point of view if someone has broken the law, or under investigation for a serious crime it may be in the best interest to investigate the content on social networking sites.

Law enforcement is genuinely protecting us from bad people, such as the sad story about a 15 year old girl Carly who was murdered in Port Elliot South Australia in 2007.  After forming an online relationship with a man on MySpace she was murdered by the man. On the same day the girl was murdered the man’s MySpace account was deleted.  In case, the police used the man’s MySpace account as evidence in the crime investigation. To read the story see http://www.news.com.au/top-stories/man-and-teen-charged-with-murder-of-girl-15/story-e6frfkp9-1111113094487.

In this sort of circumstance, if police suspect that someone is murderer or something very severe then there isnt a problem with accessing the information to investigate, and without presenting a warrant would possibly hinder the investigation.

I found this story published in 2004 (it might be a bit old) but wanted to find something about ASIO (Australia Security Intelligence Organisation) who monitor Muslim websites (2004).  In the News, a story about ASIO Scans Muslim Web Surfers states

“ASIO regards the monitoring of these websites as the most effective means of combating homegrown terrorism”.  Interestingly, the artcle states “The practice of monitoring websites is allowed under Australian law because of new laws such as the ASIO Legislation Amendment Act 2003 and the Telecommunications Interception Legislation Amendment Act 2002.” Read more: http://www.news.com.au/national/asio-scans-muslim-web-surfers/story-e6frfkx0-1111112257310#ixzz1sQFyLPFU. Im not sure if the websites they monitored were private or open to the public.

Having a look on the ASIO website, according to legislation, ”

ASIO is not subject to the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act 1982. The Privacy Act 1988 does not apply to the disclosure of personal information to ASIO by other agencies” Read more: http://www.asio.gov.au/About-ASIO/FAQs.html which would provide them with the powers to access our private information, even through according to the ASIO Act there is a process for Warrants outlined.  http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2011C00364/Html/Text#_Toc292792137

References:

boyd, d. m., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1). Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x/full

Man and teen charged with murder of girl, 15 Save this story to read later •by: By Nigel Hunt and Kate Kyriacou (2007)  http://www.news.com.au/top-stories/man-and-teen-charged-with-murder-of-girl-15/story-e6frfkp9-1111113094487. The Sunday Mail, March 04, 2007

http://www.asio.gov.au/About-ASIO/FAQs.html    Read more: http://www.news.com.au/national/asio-scans-muslim-web-surfers/story-e6frfkx0-1111112257310#ixzz1sQGBr0zW

http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2011C00364/Html/Text#_Toc292792137

I thoroughly enjoyed this week’s tutorial about Wiki’s.

A Web 2.0 platform, Wiki’s encourages online collaboration and where people contribute written by individuals but usually collaborated as a group.

Wiki’s are mostly easy-to-use, so the user logins, opens the WYSIWYG, creates and edits text, then saves. That easy! Wiki’s use Wikitext as their web programming language which has restricted the use of HTML, so it uses non-HTML elements with different version that are easy to understand and change.

There was a Youtube video provided as part of the lecture, “Wiki’s in Place English” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dnL00TdmLY&feature=player_embedded that provide “A short explanation about wikis and how they can be used to coordinate a group of people’s activities. This video comes in an unbranded “presentation quality” version that can be licensed for use in the workplace. ” (leelefever, 2007)

The example in the video, provided was about a group of friends wanting to go on a camping trip. They each used the tool to update information about what they were taking on the trip in a collaborative fashion. The demonstration provided an easy to follow instruction on the benefits and ease-of-use Wiki’s. Goodbye email hello Wiki! Reviewing the comments on the video, there were 1,740,596 users who have accessed the page, 94 dislikes and mostly positive comments from people how they enjoyed the explanation as of today!

This week’s activity was to learn more about Wikipedia where we accessed the rules governing Wikipedia and added content to a chosen page to see how long it would take before something commented.

Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopaedia used by people globally at any time and place to access general information. It has changed the way that people access and use print media.

Recently Britannica announced they were no longer running a print edition (Google News 2012). There is some contention between Wikipedia and Britannica, especially on topics of reliability and the model of collaboration and updating information. Britannica takes a more “traditional publishing approach” (Bryant, S.L., Forte, A., Bruckman, A., 2005) where content is regulated by academics and editors. They claim in a story published in Google 2012, to “have VIP experts contributing along with more than 100 employed editors, and their focus is to provide a more “scholarly knowledge to an editorial process to as many knowledge seekers as possible.” (Google News 2012).

On the other hand, Wikipedia’s encyclopaedia is constantly evolving using “a new paradigm for collaborative systems” (Bryant et. al, 2005) in a Wikipedian community of volunteer editors with various roles using open source platform WikiMedia to monitor watch updates, edit, discuss, debate, delete bots, administer, and other assigned tasks ensure a common goal to provide “a neutral point of view” in articles.

The activity of the Wikipedian community is governed by a set of rules with various processes, policies, guidelines and etiquette. Wikipedia has been a controversial Web 2.0 platform with much debate by academics, and various groups around the world.

There has been a raft of research conducted both qualitative and quantitative (longitudinal and metrics applied) conducted by academics to review its patterns of use, it’s community structure, academic use and views, comparisons between traditional and non-traditional publishing and quality and reliability of data such as Iba, Nemoto, Peters and Gloor (2009), who conducted a qualitative analyse of 2580 featured articles of the English Wikipedia investigating the editing patterns and authoring process of editors and mediators.  They categorised the editors into “coolfarmers” and “egoboosters” (Iba, Nemoto, Peters and Gloor, 2009) varying patterns of participation in a community group setting.

As a user of Wikipedia, in the past I referred to it at least once a week but didn’t realise, clearly evident by the amount of media coverage and research evidence, how much influence and impact it has on our society globally.

After this fascinating discovery, I have decided to use Wikipedia as a Web 2.0 online participation and collaboration tool to discuss and analyse the extent to which user and participants communicate and collaborate. Especially after this week’s activity where we chose, accessed a page and suggested a change to content to see how long it took for Wikipedians to comment, or alter. Also, learning about the processes in this online space! I have been spending hours researching a raft of published and online resource to learn more and am finding it amazing! Maybe I will volunteer to become a Wikipedian (as I slowly delete information off my Facebook account!).

References

Babwin, D. 2012. “Britannica’s halt of print edition triggers sales”Associated Press, Google News Accessed on:

http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5jHo0JFfDQcvK3n5siIVjloQ3wOFg?docId=e98feaa582604d5b8a153c5c18c45e05 [10 april 2012]

Bragues, G 2007. “Wiki–Philosophizing in a Marketplace of Ideas: Evaluating Wikipedia’s Entries on Seven Great Minds” (April), available at http://ssrn.com/, accessed 27 August 2008.

Brock Read, 2006. “Can Wikipedia Ever Make the Grade?” Chronicle of Higher Education, volume 53, number 10 (27 October), p. A31, and at http://chronicle.com/free/v53/i10/10a03101.htm, accessed 8 December 2007.

Bryant, S.L., Forte, A., Bruckman, A., 2005. “Becoming a Wikipedian: Transformation of Particpation in a Collaborative Online Encyolopedia”, USA, Group 05.

Cauz J “Today’s announcement is not about our past, but our future—and the new ways we’re serving our customers.” http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2012/03/looking-ahead/

Dan Tynan, 2008. “The truth is out there … somewhere,” US Airways Magazine (January), p. 42.

Giles J, 2005. “Internet encyclopedias go head to head,” Nature, volume 438, number 7070 (15 December), pp. 900-901, and at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7070/full/438900a.html, accessed 27 August 2008.

Halavais A. 2004. “The Isuzu Experiment,” blog entry at A Thaumaturgical Compendium (29 August), at http://alex.halavais.net/index.php?p=794, accessed 8 December 2007.

Iba, T. Nemoto K, Peters B, Gloor, P. (2009). Analyzing the Crative Editing Behaviour of Wikipedia Editors Through Dynamic Social Network Analysis. Elservier Procedia

Google News, (2012), Last entry for Encyclopaedia Britannica book form. (2012, March 14). Google News. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hc9zqm8Xa0XRwsLRmYf82zGmPFiw?docId=43381529ee37405ba564b938e5ad2615

P.D. Magnus, 2006. “Epistemology and the Wikipedia,” paper presented at the North American Computing and Philosophy Conference in Troy, New York, at http://www.fecundity.com/job/wikipedia.pdf, accessed 27 August 2008.

Thomas Chesney, 2006. “An empirical examination of Wikipedia’s credibility,” First Monday, volume 11, number 11 (November), at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue11_11/chesney/, accessed 27 August 2008.